Bolgar National Congress Bolgar city

The city of Bolgar


The modern city of Bolgar is an administrative centre of area Spasskogo of republic Tatarstan. It{he} is located on coast of great Volga in 120 kilometers below Kazan. It is well-known for that here there is one of remarkable monuments of the past - Bulgarian городище.

The city of Bolgar was the political, economic and cultural center of the Volga Bulgaria. Here there was a rate of the governor of the state, coins were minted, crafts such, as black and nonferrous metallurgy, metal working, potter's, jeweller, tanning, a groove on a bone, a stone and others developed. Some Bulgarian products in a plenty were taken out abroad. Well processed leather{skin} among тюркоязычных peoples of our country till today's time is known under the name "болгари". About achievements in the field of metallurgy speaks that fact, that болгары the first in Europe have started to sucelt pig-iron.

Official date of formation{education} of the state the Volga Bulgaria is considered 922 year. That year the Baghdad caliph has sent the big embassy in structure of which there were Muslim preachers and builders in the city of Bolgar. Tsar Almush - the then governor of the Volga Bulgaria - has accepted an islam and became loyal the Baghdad caliph. It is described by the secretary of embassy Ahmed ибн Фазланом.

The city of Bolgar, due to the convenient geographical position, turns to the international center of trade. The Ага-market where merchants from all Old Light trade here functions.

In due course it was built up and хорошел Болгар. In city centre the imperial palace and the Cathedral mosque towered. In Болгарах scientists and poets created. The history has kept names of poet Kul Gali who has written a poem « Юсуф and Зулейха » which is recognized as a treasury of world{global} culture, scientific historian Jakuba ибн Нугмана, philosopher Hamida аль Болгари. Numerous inscriptions on ceramics, on jewels, it is especial on a stone, show a wide circulation of literacy among the population.

But the peace development of Bulgarian people which has reached{achieved} on a boundary XII - XIII centuries of the blossoming, has been interrupted by the Mongolian invasion. In 1223, armies Чингис of khan, having subdued all Central Asia, have passed through the Caucasian ridge and have left in половецкие steppes. Here there was a fight on the river Kalka in which have been broken incorporated русско-половецкие armies. In September of the same year Mongols came to the Volga Bulgaria. Volga болгары were well prepared for a meeting of unbidden visitors. They have constructed special фортификационные constructions where have enticed the enemy and gave fight. The annals writes, that the few were rescued by flight. Болгары have taken huge quantity{amount} captured, the figure in four thousand soldiers refers to. These captured болгары have not killed and have not sold, and have exchanged for rams. On shameful for Чингис khan a condition: one ram for one soldier. Probably, this shame the soul " сотрясателя also has not born{has not taken out} the universe " - soon Чингис khan has died. This fight have named « the mutton fight », she{it} is a parameter of a high level of development of military art болгар. Thirteen years after that татаро-Mongols stormed the Volga Bulgaria. The big campaigns 1229,1232 and 1235 are known, but every time there were bats and receded. And only in 1236, having collected infinite hordes, have managed to overcome her{it} and to break through Volga to the West, in Russian grounds. What people, what state of Europe constrained an impact of the татаро-Mongolian armies even one year? « Взяша nice{famous} Great city Bulgarian and избиша the weapon from старца both up to унаго and up to сущаго the baby, and взяша the goods the set, and their city пожгоша and all their ground плениша », - is spoken in the Russian annals about events of 1236.

As against other Bulgarian cities which have lost the value, the city of Bolgar has quickly recovered from destruction and in second half XIII, first half XIV centuries has reached{achieved} the second blossoming. Russian annals call his{its} Great Болгаром, and east sources - « the Gold throne ». In 60th years of XIV century the city has been surrounded with earthen shaft and powerful oak walls. It{he} has turned to one of the largest cities of Europe, with the population more than 50 thousand person.

Also there comes 1396. This year khan of Golden Horde Аксак Тимер under a pretext, that in Bulgaria the heresy was got{started}, undertakes a devastating campaign and betrays to its{her} fire and a sword. The hailstones Great Болгар has been razed to the ground. The governor of Bulgaria Abdulla патша is killed. It is possible to rescue his{its} sons Галим бека and the Three-copecks piece бека. Them take away to the north and hide in small Bulgarian city under the name Kazan. The symbol of greatness of the Volga Bulgaria and a source of its{her} economic power - Ага a market is transferred upwards to Volga on the island Gostinyj located about Kazan. In parallel Kazan begin to name Болгар аль джадид, that in translation means New Болгар. Kazan becomes capital of the Volga Bulgaria.

Hailstones Болгар loses the political value. In 1722, going on Volga on a gain of Azov, Peter - 1 has paid attention to the ancient deserted city in which has counted more than 70 buildings. It{he} has enjoined to describe all objects and has issued the Decree ordering to the governor of the Kazan province to repair and protect of them. Ungrateful{thankless} descendants have not executed his{its} will. Today was reached also with half of that complex of buildings and constructions which Peter admired.

But the history has shown the favour to us: kept represents extensive городище, surrounded in gross and рвом in the length more than seven kilometers. Here architectural monuments, such as « the Cathedral mosque », three mausoleums, « the Small minaret », « Black chamber », a bath - "Red" and "White" chambers which are objects of pilgrimage of numerous tourists and admirers of olden time are located.

The tourist road begins with the central complex of monuments. The majestic panorama of " the Cathedral mosque » opens. The construction of a temple started soon after 1236, has been completed at the end of a century. The rectangular building, the size 32х34 meter had inside 20 columns and wooden четырехскатную a roof. The arch portal of an input{entrance} and a high minaret adjoined to main northern facade. From different directions walls of a temple have been plastered and укреплены by buttresses. From the southern party{side} it was placed михраб, framed by a rich ornamental groove on a stone.

East mausoleum on the architecture belongs to type Muslim шатровых tombs with a remote portal. The rectangular building thanking скосам smoothly passes in an octahedral circle. The hemispherical dome was surprisingly well kept. Visitors should note skill of the Bulgarian builders who have created such wonderful lace - a dome from small tuff кирпичиков. For improvement of acoustics of a building in corners ceramic pipes - grid-irons are placed.

Northern mausoleum « the Monastic cellar », identical on a lay-out, differed from east in the big size and some details. In 1968 - 69 years it{he} was реставрирован, above it{him} the environment is created easy керамзитобетонная. Inside a monument the exhibition Bulgarian эпиграфических monuments operates.

From high Volga coast precise outlines of one of known Bulgarian monuments - a bath « Red chamber » are visible. Archeologic researches 1938 - have opened 40 years kept on height up to 2 meters of a wall, stone reservoirs, traces of the water drain and system of heating. Outside and from within walls have been plastered and painted red and pink colors, why a monument has received the name of " Red chamber ».

On the lay-out it is close to « Red chamber » and other bath located in top part Болгара - « White chamber ». Under the description belonging to academician Pallasu P.S., it is possible to restore his{its} appearance. This crosswise, richly decorated building consisting of the central dome hall, раздевальни, several small washing rooms and топочного premises{rooms}. A bath in the East, including in Болгарах, played not only a sanitary role. They were a place of rest where business conversations were quite often conducted, trading agreements consist.

 Near to it{her} the most keep towers and legendary of the Bulgarian monuments - « Black chamber ». Poetic legends are connected to this building many. One of them says, that at capture Болгара Тамерланом (Аксак Тимер) the Bulgarian tsar Abdulla together with children, the wife and relatives was shut in Black chamber. The conqueror has ordered to fill up this building with logs and to set fire to it{him}. In result all were lost. Only one princess Altynchech any miracle has survived and has managed to get out outside. Тамерлан, having seen золотоволосую the girl in a white attire, has been struck with its{her} beauty. It{he} there and then ordered to extinguish{put out} fire and has declared, that will make its{her} main wife. The girl has refused. Furious Тамерлан has ordered to result in it{him} its{her} two brothers taken in a captivity and expecting execution. The daughter of the Bulgarian tsar, having seen the brothers with packs on a neck, has cried out to the conqueror that agree to become his{its} wife if it{he} on its{her} eyes will release{will let off} brothers on freedom and will give them the best horses. Тамерлан has granted its{her} desire. Bulgarian tsarevitches Галим бек and the Three-copecks piece бек jump on horses and, having thrown{stopped} a farewell sight at the sister, disappear from a field of vision. Princess rushes headfirst on burning down logs. This legend to some extent explains also the name of a monument: from a smoke and a soot it{he} has turned black and began to refer to as " Black chamber ». On a plot of this legend poet M.Dzhalil and composer F.Jarullin have written an opera « the Three-copecks piece чэч » ("Золотоволосая") about struggle Volga болгар against the tatar yoke, for what have directed them "volunteers" on front where they and were lost.

Further the road conducts us to « the Small minaret ». Constructed in second half XIV centuries, шестнадцатиметровый a minaret it is proud costs{stands} among tombs. An arch input{entrance} on a ladder and an ornamental niche have rich декорировку, executed in technics{technical equipment} of a thin stone groove. The stone spiral staircase in 45 steps conducts on the top gallery.

To the south and to the east from « the Small minaret » by archeologists the bases still the several mausoleums are opened. All of them are inhibited and submitted for a review. The stone buildings of the mausoleums which are taking place in it{him} brick надгробья and crypts, speak that here there was a cemetery of notable people. This most raised place городища. The good panorama of defensive works from here opens.

Acquaintance to ancient city comes to the end on « the Small small town ». Укрепленная and рвом the territory with several stone buildings is located by shaft at southern entrance gate Болгара.

Bulgarian городище with his{its} architectural monuments, defensive works and numerous archeologic objects, is историко - architectural reserve.

The most significant monuments Bulgarian городища are those. More full to familiarize with his{its} sights, it is necessary to visit here itself, to walk around his{its} ancient ground, to pray to his{its} sacred stones. Not зря old men speak, that triple visiting of hailstones Great Болгар is equivalent хаджу to sacred Mecca.



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